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The GSM Association broadly outlines the content of such roaming agreements in standardized form for its members.For the legal aspects of authentication, authorization and billing of the visiting subscriber, the roaming agreements typically can comprise minimal safety standards, as e.g.
The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks, but in general, the process resembles the following: Location updating is the mechanism that is used to determine the location of an MS in the idle state (connected to the network, but with no active call).
While the IREG testing is to test the proper functioning of the established communication links, the TADIG testing is to check the billability of the calls.
The usage by a subscriber in a visited network is captured in a file called the TAP (Transferred Account Procedure) for GSM / CIBER (Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Record) for CDMA, AMPS etc... A TAP/CIBER file contains details of the calls made by the subscriber viz.
The visited operator tariffs may include tax, discounts etc.
and would be based on duration in case of voice calls.
Several carriers in both the United States and India have eliminated these fees in their nationwide pricing plans.